Warning: Don’t be fooled by the working income tax benefit tax scheme

 The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) is warning Canadians about getting involved in schemes where promoters, usually tax representatives or tax preparers, are claiming they can get a tax refund for participants from the working income tax benefit (WITB) even if they have no work income.

Setting the record straight: What is the working income tax benefit?

The working income tax benefit (WITB) is a refundable tax credit intended to give tax relief for eligible low-income individuals and families who are currently in the workforce. It also encourages Canadians to enter the workforce. You can only claim the WITB if you are earning income from working in Canada.

Be careful—here’s how the scheme works:

Here is what to watch for in the WITB scheme:

  • The promoter, who is usually a tax preparer or tax professional, will tell you they can increase your tax refund.
  • They will tell you that they will prepare a T4 (a T4 is a slip that shows your work earnings, or employment income) in your name and they will list an income amount in box 14 of the slip that will maximize your tax refund.
    • If you have not worked as an employee in Canada then you should not have a T4 slip with your name on it.Reporting this amount may result in serious consequences to you.
  • By law, when preparing a T4, an employer must subtract certain amounts from your work earnings. These include deductions such as: income tax and mandatory employee contributions to certain programs (Employment Insurance (EI), the Canadian Pension Plan (CPP) and the Quebec Pension Plan (QPP)). The promoter will tell you that you must pay them the tax deductions they noted on the T4 slip as well as a fee for them completing your tax return. A legitimate tax preparer will never ask you to pay back deductions and will not prepare a T4 for you when you did not earn income in Canada

A good rule of thumb – If something sounds too good to be true, it most likely is.

What are the consequences to you if you participate in these schemes and what can you do?

The WITB is not intended for individuals who have no work income. If someone claims it is, they are misleading you and there may be serious consequences.

Those who choose to participate in these schemes and those who promote them face serious consequences, including penalties, court fines, and even jail time.

People who avoid or evade taxes take resources away from social programs that all Canadians benefit from.

All taxpayers, including those who pay tax experts to prepare their taxes, are legally responsible for the accuracy of their tax returns.

The CRA encourages all Canadians to seek an independent second opinion from a reputable tax or legal professional on important tax and legal matters.

If you suspect someone of promoting or participating in an abusive tax scheme, you can report it at Canada.ca/taxes-leads or by calling the Leads program at 1-866-809-6841. You may give information anonymously.

For more information on tax schemes, please visit Canada.ca/tax-schemes

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SOURCE Canada Revenue Agency

Doing taxes used to be an even bigger pain

By Shirley Tillotson, Inglis Professor at University of King’s College, Professor of Canadian History (Dalhousie University, retired), Dalhousie University

THE CANADIAN PRESS

This article was originally published on The Conversation, an independent and nonprofit source of news, analysis and commentary from academic experts. Disclosure information is available on the original site.

___

Author: Shirley Tillotson, Inglis Professor at University of King’s College, Professor of Canadian History (Dalhousie University, retired), Dalhousie University

If your income is mainly a paycheque, filing a Canadian income tax return these days is pretty easy. And that’s no accident.

Smart innovations in tax administration in the 1950s built a slick collection system that worked. Except, of course, for small business. And, for the moment, let’s not speak of the many avenues of escape that capital income has enjoyed.

But taxing employees? We figured out how to do that pretty painlessly almost 70 years ago. Surely we can do the same for more tax filers today.

When federal taxation of wages and small salaries was launched during the Second World War, there was incomprehension, chaos and widespread resentment. Tax protest was part of several strikes by organized labour in 1941 and 1942. Non-union workers refused overtime for tax reasons, a real problem for wartime industries.

The new income tax law left lower-income workers no wiggle room in their household budgets.

My book, “Give and Take: The Citizen-Taxpayer and the Rise of Canadian Democracy,” contains examples of protest letters that poured in to the federal Finance Department from people like Miss W.E. Drummond. She was a white-collar employee earning a decent wage. She detailed every item in her weekly budget and asked: “What am I to do, drop this Insurance for my old age? Let my home people starve or go on relief?”

Tax forms were nightmarish

To complaints like hers, James Lorimer Ilsley, then the finance minister, responded with concessions such as allowing a tax credit for some insurance premiums.

But concessions made another tax problem worse: The forms. Their format was unchanged from the 1920s and 1930s, when federal income taxpayers were mostly professional men or business owners. Expressed in dense legalese, they were typeset mostly in six and seven point. If Miss Drummond wanted to know whether her insurance payments were deductible, she had to wade through 111 words of lawyer-ly instruction, 62 of them in tiny print, the rest of them smaller.

Confronted with these forms, semi-literate fishermen in coastal British Columbia and barely educated millworkers in New Brunswick (or their often equally ill-equipped employers) struggled to understand tax terms like “married status.”

“Married status” would lower their taxes, and unmarried people could claim it. But first they’d have to figure out if they and a “wholly dependent relative” lived in a “self-contained domestic establishment… containing at least two bedrooms in which residence amongst other things the taxpayer as a general rule sleeps and has his meals prepared and served.” And served?!

‘Tax conscious’

Dreadfully inaccessible forms were not the only source of pain for wage-earning taxpayers.

Some people thought that paying income tax was meant to hurt, at least a little.

Former Prime Minister Arthur Meighen made this view clear in the 1939 Senate debate on war income taxation. Exemption levels should be so low that almost every earner would be an income taxpayer. Only if they personally felt a pinch in the pocketbook would voters be “tax conscious.” Only then would they care about “preventing waste in government.”

Meighen’s wish came true. Not only did the wartime government lower exemptions in 1941, and drastically so in 1942, they also told the nation’s payroll clerks to clip from paycheques only 95 per cent of the amount that would likely show up in employees’ year-end calculations of tax payable.

That way, at tax filing time, most employees would still owe income tax, beyond what the payroll clerk had been collecting all year. Pretty much everyone working for a wage would have to actually fork over some cash with their return.

To be fair, this was a way of avoiding any risk of over-deducting. But it also made taxpayers feel the pain of payment _ to good moral effect, some thought.

Debts went unpaid

By 1951, however, tax administrators had discovered a downside to this exercise in moral instruction. Every year, hundreds of thousands of small tax liabilities went unpaid. Collecting those debts placed the federal government in the role of big, bad collection agency garnishing some pretty small wages.

The solution: Abandon the practice of payroll clerks collecting throughout the year only 95 per cent of tax owing. Tell them to deduct 100 per cent instead.

No more making tax debtors out of struggling wage earners. Instead, most employee tax returns would produce _ yippee! _ a refund.

In the spring of 1952, Canadians rushed enthusiastically to file their tax returns (or so it was reported in the Toronto Daily Star).

But the Globe and Mail’s editors took a darker view. The revenue authority was collecting more tax than was owed. The collections were therefore “illegal,” “contrary to the principle underlying our constitution,” and “stupid.”

Why “stupid?” As the editors of the Winnipeg Tribune argued, if taxpayers didn’t actually pay cash at tax time, they might forget that “government was spending a great deal of money.” They’d no longer be tax conscious.

Built revenue for pensions and medicare

For the remainder of the Liberals’ term under Louis St. Laurent, opposition members like Waldo Monteith pushed this point. But the system continued. It built revenue for the welfare state in much the same way that personal savings build when you set up a monthly deduction.

The over-payment method was not the only innovation in tax administration. For the 1948 tax year, a short T1 form was introduced. Pamphlet-sized and legible, it was clearly the work of a skilled designer. Non-lawyers could read it without weeping.

These and other innovations have made reporting income and claiming credits on employment income relatively easy. Perhaps we’re now at the point where many of us the 57 per cent of filers with income primarily from employment would be well-served by a more automated tax assessment. The ritual of completing even a simplified form may be just another exercise in tax consciousness, a flogging of the form-phobic that only inflames anti-tax feeling.

For the other 43 per cent, and especially for small businesses where tax compliance competes painfully with other uses of time and money, the lesson of the 1950s is that tax administration matters. As Canada’s auditor general has recently reminded us, when the revenue agency is underfunded, service shrivels.

We have seen the current government increase CRA funding to improve services to small business in particular and taxpayers generally. It’s too soon to tell (from publicly available information, at least) what impact this will have.

But making employees’ tax compliance easy helped make personal income tax the workhorse of Canada’s taxation system. Now we need to do the same for small business.

We should consider simplifying the law, of course. But even if legal complexity is required for fairness, as it often is, skilled administration can make paying taxes much less painful. And that might protect the revenue  as well as serving the taxpayer.

 

Canada: Creative Uses of Life Insurance, Split Beneficiary Planning – ILScorp.com

Get Started: 5 tips for last minute business tax filers

By Joyce M. Rosenberg

THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

NEW YORK _ AVOIDING LAST-MINUTE TAX MISTAKES

Business owners can find it a tall order to complete their tax returns while also running their companies. When an owner is distracted, or not paying close attention to IRS rules, that’s when mistakes happen. Some of the common ones to avoid:

_If you’re a freelancer or independent contractor, make sure you have all the 1099 forms you need from people or companies you’ve worked for. If you file your return and you’re missing any of your 1099s, you’ll be hearing from the IRS. The government cross-checks the 1099 copies it gets with the amount of income you report, and if there’s a discrepancy, the IRS will want to know why.

_If your business is a partnership, be sure the income and deductions reported to the IRS on your firm’s Schedule K-1, Partner’s Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc., matches what you report on your Form 1040. If you find an error on the K-1, make sure the form is corrected before you file your return.

_If you’re deducting the cost of business meals and entertainment, you can claim only half the amount you spent.

_If you want to take a deduction for a home office, you must have been using the office exclusively and regularly as your principal place of business. If the office is a desk in the corner of your family room, it’s not likely to pass muster with the IRS.

_If you drive your car for business and personal use, make sure you get as big a deduction as the law allows. The IRS gives you two choices; the first is a standard deduction of 53.5 cents per mile the car was driven for business. The second alternative is a portion of expenses like gas, insurance, lease payments and maintenance that is prorated to the amount the car was used for business. You should calculate your costs using both methods to be sure you get the biggest deduction allowable.

TD Bank Group Statement on U.S. Tax Reform

 On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”), which makes broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code that will take time to interpret.

The reduction of the U.S. corporate tax rate enacted by the Tax Act will cause The Toronto-Dominion Bank (“TD” or the “Bank”) (TSX and NYSE: TD) to adjust its U.S. deferred tax assets and liabilities to the lower base rate of 21 percent, and to adjust the carrying balances of certain tax credit-related and other investments. Based on the Bank’s current understanding of the Tax Act following a preliminary assessment, TD estimates the overall one-time impact of the Tax Act will reduce earnings for the quarter ending January 31, 2018 by approximately US$400 million.

The one-time impact of the Tax Act in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 is expected to reduce the Bank’s CET1 ratio by approximately 9 basis points.

While the Tax Act will require a one-time charge to earnings in the first quarter of fiscal 2018, the lower corporate rate is expected to have a positive effect on TD’s future earnings.

The expected one-time impact and effect on TD’s future earnings may differ from the Bank’s current assessment, due to, among other things, changes in interpretations and assumptions the Bank has made, guidance that may be issued by applicable regulatory authorities, and actions the Bank may take as a result of the Tax Act or otherwise.

TD will report first quarter financial results on March 1, 2018.

Caution Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
From time to time, the Bank (as defined in this document) makes written and/or oral forward-looking statements, including in this document, in other filings with Canadian regulators or the United States (U.S.) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and in other communications. In addition, representatives of the Bank may make forward-looking statements orally to analysts, investors, the media, and others. All such statements are made pursuant to the “safe harbour” provisions of, and are intended to be forward-looking statements under, applicable Canadian and U.S. securities legislation, including the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements made in this document, the Management’s Discussion and Analysis (“2017 MD&A”) under the heading “Economic Summary and Outlook”, for the Canadian Retail, U.S. Retail and Wholesale Banking segments under headings “Business Outlook and Focus for 2018”, and for the Corporate segment, “Focus for 2018”, and in other statements regarding the Bank’s objectives and priorities for 2018 and beyond and strategies to achieve them, the regulatory environment in which the Bank operates, and the Bank’s anticipated financial performance. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by words such as “will”, “would”, “should”, “believe”, “expect”, “anticipate”, “intend”, “estimate”, “plan”, “goal”, “target”, “may”, and “could”.

By their very nature, these forward-looking statements require the Bank to make assumptions and are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties, general and specific. Especially in light of the uncertainty related to the physical, financial, economic, political, and regulatory environments, such risks and uncertainties – many of which are beyond the Bank’s control and the effects of which can be difficult to predict – may cause actual results to differ materially from the expectations expressed in the forward-looking statements. Risk factors that could cause, individually or in the aggregate, such differences include: credit, market (including equity, commodity, foreign exchange, interest rate, and credit spreads), liquidity, operational (including technology and infrastructure), reputational, insurance, strategic, regulatory, legal, environmental, capital adequacy, and other risks. Examples of such risk factors include the general business and economic conditions in the regions in which the Bank operates; the ability of the Bank to execute on key priorities, including the successful completion of acquisitions and dispositions, business retention plans, and strategic plans and to attract, develop, and retain key executives; disruptions in or attacks (including cyber-attacks) on the Bank’s information technology, internet, network access, or other voice or data communications systems or services; the evolution of various types of fraud or other criminal behaviour to which the Bank is exposed; the failure of third parties to comply with their obligations to the Bank or its affiliates, including relating to the care and control of information; the impact of new and changes to, or application of, current laws and regulations, including without limitation tax laws, risk-based capital guidelines and liquidity regulatory guidance and the bank recapitalization “bail-in” regime; exposure related to significant litigation and regulatory matters; increased competition, including through internet and mobile banking and non-traditional competitors; changes to the Bank’s credit ratings; changes in currency and interest rates (including the possibility of negative interest rates); increased funding costs and market volatility due to market illiquidity and competition for funding; critical accounting estimates and changes to accounting standards, policies, and methods used by the Bank; existing and potential international debt crises; and the occurrence of natural and unnatural catastrophic events and claims resulting from such events. The Bank cautions that the preceding list is not exhaustive of all possible risk factors and other factors could also adversely affect the Bank’s results. For more detailed information, please refer to the “Risk Factors and Management” section of the 2017 MD&A, as may be updated in subsequently filed quarterly reports to shareholders and news releases (as applicable) related to any transactions or events discussed under the heading “Significant Events” in the relevant MD&A, which applicable releases may be found on www.td.com. All such factors should be considered carefully, as well as other uncertainties and potential events, and the inherent uncertainty of forward-looking statements, when making decisions with respect to the Bank and the Bank cautions readers not to place undue reliance on the Bank’s forward-looking statements.

Material economic assumptions underlying the forward-looking statements contained in this document are set out in the 2017 MD&A under the headings “Economic Summary and Outlook”, for the Canadian Retail, U.S. Retail, and Wholesale Banking segments, “Business Outlook and Focus for 2018”, and for the Corporate segment, “Focus for 2018”, each as may be updated in subsequently filed quarterly reports to shareholders.

Any forward-looking statements contained in this document represent the views of management only as of the date hereof and are presented for the purpose of assisting the Bank’s shareholders and analysts in understanding the Bank’s financial position, objectives and priorities, and anticipated financial performance as at and for the periods ended on the dates presented, and may not be appropriate for other purposes. The Bank does not undertake to update any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time by or on its behalf, except as required under applicable securities legislation.

About TD Bank Group
The Toronto-Dominion Bank and its subsidiaries are collectively known as TD Bank Group (“TD” or the “Bank”). TD is the sixth largest bank in North America by branches and serves more than 25 million customers in three key businesses operating in a number of locations in financial centres around the globe: Canadian Retail, including TD Canada Trust, TD Auto Finance Canada, TD Wealth (Canada), TD Direct Investing, and TD Insurance; U.S. Retail, including TD Bank, America’s Most Convenient Bank®, TD Auto Finance U.S., TD Wealth (U.S.), and an investment in TD Ameritrade; and Wholesale Banking, including TD Securities. TD also ranks among the world’s leading online financial services firms, with approximately 11.5 million active online and mobile customers. TD had $1.3 trillion in assets on October 31, 2017. The Toronto-Dominion Bank trades under the symbol “TD” on the Toronto and New York Stock Exchanges.

SOURCE TD Bank Group

Some Canadian companies start new year with gains from U.S. tax cuts: analysts

Some Canadian companies start new year with gains from U.S. tax cuts: analysts

By Ross Marowits

THE CANADIAN PRESS

MONTREAL _ Some Canadian companies that earn a high share of their revenues in the United States stand to save big from a large reduction in the corporate tax rate, say industry experts.

New Flyer (TSX:NFI) and Boyd Group Income Fund (TSX:BYD.UN), which earn more than 80 per cent of their sales south of the border, will be among those that are most impacted, an AltaCorp Capital report said Tuesday.

Analyst Chris Murray said that among engineering and construction firms, Stantec (TSX:STN) and WSP Global (TSX:WSP) will be “favourably impacted” from the tax changes and planned American infrastructure spending.

“We would expect that the introduction of new tax rules could serve as a catalyst for accelerated acquisition activity as a number of sellers see a window in which to divest their business to take advantage of the changes, benefiting the growth via acquisition strategies,” he wrote in a report.

Tax changes approved by the Republican-led Congress and signed by President Donald Trump before Christmas cut the corporate income tax rate to 21 per cent effective Monday, from 35 per cent.

Molson Coors, headquartered in Denver and Montreal, declined to provide details about how the tax changes will affect the brewery ahead of its quarterly results Feb. 14. However, 70 per cent of the beverage company’s revenues come from south of the border, said spokesman Colin Wheeler.

Brittany Weissman of Edward Jones expects Molson Coors will gain despite losing some of the cash tax benefit it has had from its multibillion-dollar acquisition of Miller Coors.

“Directionally it should be a net net benefit … but how much it is too soon to say,” she said in an interview.

Weissman also believes dairy processor Saputo Inc. (TSX:SAP) stands to gain because almost half of its business is located in the United States.

However, she said Montreal-based clothing manufacturer Gildan (TSX:GIL) is already subject to a very low tax rate because it is domiciled in Barbados.

Several Canadian firms, including Quebec-headquartered Valeant Pharmaceuticals International Inc. (TSX:VRX) and Canadian National Railway (TSX:CNR), said they are studying the tax changes.

“We are assessing the impact of the bill and its potential impact to the company in both the near-term and long-term,” Valeant spokeswoman Lainie Keller wrote in an email.

In a report before the tax changes were approved, RBC Capital Markets said large tax reductions could lead to a significant shift in winners and losers.

“We think it could have a profound and positive impact on TSX performance, given its cyclical tilt,” Matthew Barasch wrote Sept. 26.

However, he warned that clouding the outlook is the fact that most Canadian and U.S. companies operating south of the border actually pay a lower effective tax rate than statutory corporate tax rate.

“While a comparison of statutory tax rates (inclusive of all state and local taxes) suggests that U.S. rates are far higher than most other countries, a comparison of effective tax rates suggests something different.”

PricewaterhouseCoopers says the implications of the tax law on Canadian-owned businesses can be significant.

“The various provisions may be beneficial or detrimental. Thus, it is important to give careful consideration to the specific implications for your operations so that value is preserved when possible,” it wrote to clients after the bill was passed.

Barasch said some Canadian sectors such as oil and gas producers, telecommunications, grocers and Canadian retailers like Dollarama won’t be impacted, while some Canadian banks and insurance companies will get some earnings growth.

Most real estate companies would not be directly impacted because of their REIT structures, but non REITs such as FirstService Corp. and Colliers International Group Inc. (TSX:CIGI), with large U.S. footprints stand to benefit materially.

He said it’s difficult to quantify the impact for convenience store operator Alimentation Couche-Tard (TSX:ATD.B), even though it gets nearly 70 per cent of its revenues from the U.S.

Ring in the new year with 10 tax tips

Canadians, and especially business owners, who take the time to plan ahead – rather than look back – will find that opportunities around personal taxes can be more than a holiday wish this season, according to EY Canada’s Asking better year-end tax planning questions.

“Tax rules are always changing and this year it’s more important than ever for Canadians to understand how the federal government’s private company tax reform proposals might impact their bottom line,” says David Steinberg, EY Canadian Tax Leader, Private Client Services. “The proposals are far-reaching and it’s critical for Canadians to pay close attention to what these changes mean for their tax planning now,  and well into the future. Early planning and action means taxpayers can prepare accordingly and save money on their 2017 returns.”

This December, EY suggests Canadians consider the following 10 questions as they plan their tax returns for 2017 and beyond:

1. Do you income-split private corporation business earnings with adult family members?
On 18 July 2017, the federal government introduced proposals and draft legislation that may limit income splitting opportunities with adult family members through the use of private corporations beginning in 2018. Consult with your tax advisor and consider maximizing income splitting with adult family members by distributing private corporation business earnings to them before the end of the year.

2. Do you receive non-eligible dividend income?
The tax rate applicable to non-eligible dividend income will be increasing for dividends received on or after 1 January 2018. If you have discretion over the amount of dividends received, consider receiving more non-eligible dividends prior to the end of the year. But be sure to weigh the savings of the lower non-eligible dividend tax rate against the tax deferral available by retaining income within the corporation.

3. Do you hold passive income?
The federal government has proposed to increase tax on passive earnings above a $50,000 threshold that will apply on a go forward basis. Draft legislation is expected to be released along with the spring 2018 federal budget. Now is the time to speak with your tax advisor on how to optimize grandfathering.

4. Do you have capital gains?
Although the government has indicated that it won’t proceed with proposals to restrict access to the lifetime capital gains exemption, and other capital gains planning, it’s important to review your capital gains transactions. Taking the time now to plan ahead can help you save on future returns.

5. Have you paid your 2017 tax-deductible or tax-creditable expenses yet?
There are a variety of expenses, including interest and child-care costs, which can only be claimed as deductions in a tax return if the amounts are paid by the end of the calendar year. You’ll want to check on expenditures that give rise to tax credits and consider if the deduction or credit is worth more to you this year or next.

6. Have you maximized your tax-sheltered investments by contributing to a TFSA or an RRSP?
Make your tax-free savings account (TFSA) and registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) contributions for 2017 and catch up on prior non-contributory years. In order to maximize tax-free earnings, consider making your 2018 contributions in January. If you’re considering making an RRSP withdrawal under the Home Buyers’ Plan, you can withdraw up to $25,000 from your RRSP with no tax withheld, but must acquire a home by October of the following year. The funds must be repaid over 15 years starting the second calendar year after withdrawal. So if you can, wait until January 2018 before making the withdrawal.

7. Have you maximized your education savings by contributing to an RESP for your child or grandchild?
Make registered education savings plan (RESP) contributions for your child or grandchild before the end of the year. With a contribution of $2,500 per child under the age of 18, the federal government will contribute a grant (CESG) of $500 annually.

8. Is there a way for you to reduce or eliminate your non-deductible interest?
Interest on funds borrowed for personal purposes is not deductible. Where possible, consider using available cash to repay personal debt before repaying loans for investment or business purposes on which interest may be deductible.

9. Have you reviewed your investment portfolio?
Consider if you have any accrued losses to use against realized gains and determine if you have realized losses to carry forward.

10. Have you thought about estate planning?
Take time to update your will and consider if there are changes to your life insurance needs. It may be the right time to consider an estate freeze to minimize tax on death and/or probate fees. Developing a comprehensive succession plan can help you pass the benefit of your assets.

Steinberg explains: “These questions may seem familiar, but as tax rules change and become more complex, it becomes increasingly important to think of the bigger tax picture continuously throughout the year, as well as from year to year as your personal circumstances change. Start a conversation with your tax advisor to find better answers.”

To read EY tax insights and tips, visit ey.com/ca/taxmatters. To learn more about how EY works with private companies, visit ey.com/ca/private.

About EY
EY is a global leader in assurance, tax, transaction and advisory services. The insights and quality services we deliver help build trust and confidence in the capital markets and in economies the world over. We develop outstanding leaders who team to deliver on our promises to all of our stakeholders. In so doing, we play a critical role in building a better working world for our people, for our clients and for our communities.

EY refers to the global organization and may refer to one or more of the member firms of Ernst & Young Global Limited, each of which is a separate legal entity. Ernst & Young Global Limited, a UK company limited by guarantee, does not provide services to clients. For more information about our organization, please visit ey.com.

SOURCE EY (Ernst & Young)

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